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“Those who do not remember history are condemned to repeat it.”

— George Santayana

White Slavery in America

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bookcover - White man standing on a dock next to a sailing ship, with chains around his neck They Were White and They Were Slaves:
The Untold History of the Enslavement of Whites in Early America

by Michael A. Hoffman II
Independent History 1993; ISBN 0-929-90305-6

“This remarkable history book traces the suppressed record of the slave trade in Whites, hundreds of thousands of whom were kidnapped, chained, whipped and worked to death in colonial America and industrial Britain. Historian Michael A. Hoffman II makes a compelling case for the fact that millions of American Whites alive today are also descendants of slaves, the White slaves.”

“...a new and startling perspective on the slavery issue.”

— Instauration magazine

“...an excellent book...”

— Revilo Oliver, PhD.
University of Illinois

“I purchased this book, with great reluctance, as I thought it might be ‘racist’ in nature. However, I found it most enlightening. It reveals that slavery was never about race, but rather about labor. Labor was looked upon as a commodity to be bought and sold. My interest was from a genealogical and historical point. It allowed me to locate lines of my family both white, Irish and English that were sold on the auction block, in Barbados in the 1600s, along with other slaves who were black. It will further give great insight in the abusive child labor of 1800 England. For any and all it is a great read.”

— Amazon.com reviewer
from Easton, PA

See also:

The Forgotten Slaves:
Whites in Servitude in Early America and Industrial Britain


“Freedom of speech involves the right to think the unthinkable, mention the unmentionable, and challenge the unchallengeable.”

— Oliver Wendell Holmes

Eighteenth-Century White Slaves
by Daniel Meaders, Compiler
Greenwood Publishing Group 1993; ISBN 0-313-27987-X


“This work is a compilation of newspaper advertisements for runaway servants. A brief introductory essay offers a good summation of general patterns. The masters offered thorough descriptions of the servants they wanted captured and returned. These detailed descriptions also give us a good look at these individuals.

“Those interested in Irish history would find this interesting. While a number of ethnic groups are mentioned, an overwhelming majority of the servants advertised in 18th-century Philadelphia were Gaelic-speaking Irish just beginning to learn English. This should also be interesting for students of labor history. The skills and experience of the servants are listed, as are a number of injuries, most presumably work-related.”

— Brian Patrick O’Malley
Amazon.com reviewer

Prostitution and Prejudice:
The Jewish Fight Against White Slavery, 1870-1939

by Edward J. Bristow
Oxford University Press, 1982; Schocken Books, New York, 1984; ASIN 0-805-23866-2

“Jewish historian Edward Bristow writes about the world prostitution network and clearly shows the prominent Jewish role. ... Bristow reveals that the center of the Jewish trade in Gentile women from Poland and surrounding regions was a small town called Oswiecim, which the Germans called Auschwitz.”

— David Duke

“Although Bristow’s book is written from the viewpoint of one opposed to this Jewish trade in women, it is nevertheless enormously revealing. The Jews recruited peasant girls in Polish and Russian villages, usually under false pretenses, and transported them to brothels in Turkey, Egypt, and other parts of the Middle East; to Vienna, Budapest, and other major cities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire; and as far away as New York, New Orleans, and Buenos Aires. This Jewish trade in Slavic women naturally caused a great deal of hatred against the Jews by the Slavs, and this hatred broke out in pogroms and other popular actions against the Jews over and over again.”

— Dr. William Pierce

See also below:
Jews and the White Slave Trade, by Dr. William Pierce

“I’m for truth, no matter who tells it. I’m for justice, no matter who it is for or against. I’m a human being first and foremost, and as such I am for whoever and whatever benefits humanity as a whole.”

— Malcolm X

The Forgotten Cause Of The Civil War:
A New Look At The Slavery Issue

By Lawrence R. Tenzer
Scholars’ Publishing House, Manahawkin, New Jersey, 1997

“Lawrence R. Tenzer has devoted a great deal of time and energy to studying what he believes is a sadly overlooked aspect of the slavery issue and its impact on the minds of Northerners and Southerners alike. This is the topic of white slavery. Tenzer argues that many contemporaries knew it existed and were deeply shocked. This helped to lead them to oppose the extension of slavery into the western territories and thus was a significant cause of the Civil War.”

— Earl J. Hess
Lincoln Memorial University

See also:
Facsimile of a Republican Party handbill from the Presidential election of 1856
“The Issue — White Slavery”

The Redneck Manifesto:
How Hillbillies, Hicks, and White Trash Became America’s Scapegoats

by Jim Goad
Touchstone Books 1998; ISBN 0-684-83864-8


“Goad writes probably the only account of the white underclass American culture has ever seen. White slavery in the U.S., the relativity of power (i.e., how poor whites are similar to poor blacks in social status), the cultural legacy of poor, white trash, and why it’s safe, if not culturally encouraged, to trash lower-class whites, are some of numerous topics covered.”

— bconra
Amazon.com reviewer
from Reno

“Culture maverick Jim Goad presents a thoroughly reasoned, darkly funny, and rampagingly angry defense of America’s most maligned social group — the cultural clan variously referred to as rednecks, hillbillies, white trash, crackers, and trailer trash.

“As The Redneck Manifesto boldly points out and brilliantly demonstrates, America’s dirty little secret isn’t racism but classism.”

Amazon.com editorial review

“Goad discusses what a nightmare it would be for the upper crust if poor whites and blacks quit fighting each other and united to vanquish a common enemy.”

— trigler
Amazon.com reviewer
from Albuquirky, Land o’ Entrapment

White Trash:
Race and Class in America

Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, Editors
Routledge 1996; ISBN 0-415-91692-5


“This collection is devoted to exploring stereotypes about the social conditions of poor whites in the United States and comparing these stereotypes with the social reality.”

— Amazon.com book description

“Poor whites are associated with kitschy chic or dangerous perversions in mainstream culture, rather than with the realities of life under conditions of economic hardship and social disempowerment. White Trash compares the stereotypes with the social reality, unmasking the racial and class assumptions behind the term.”

— Ingram

Labor in America: A History
by Foster R. Dulles
Harlan Davidson Incorporated 1999; ISBN 0-882-95979-4

“[White slaves were] indiscriminately herded aboard the ‘white guineamen,’ often as many as 300 passengers on little vessels of not more than 200 tons burden — overcrowded, unsanitary... The mortality rate was sometimes as high as 50% and young children seldom survived the horrors of a voyage which might last anywhere from seven to twelve weeks.”

“[Upon arrival in America, White slaves were] put up for sale by the ship captains or merchants... Families were often separated under these circumstances when wives and offspring were auctioned off to the highest bidder.” (p. 7)

Dead or Alive:
Fugitive Slaves and White Indentured Servants Before 1830

by Daniel Meaders
ASIN: 0-815-31007-2

White Servitude and Black Slavery in Barbados, 1627-1715
by Hilary McD. Beckles
ASIN: 0-870-49601-8

“[White slaves] found themselves powerless as individuals, without honor or respect and driven into commodity production not by any inner sense of moral duty but by the outer stimulus of the whip.” (p. 5)

The Curse of Cromwell:
A History of the Ironside Conquest of Ireland, 1649-53

by D. M. R. Esson

“[Irish religious leaders were herded into] internment camps throughout Ireland, and were then moved progressively to the ports for shipment overseas like cattle.”

“Altogether more than one hundred thousand Irish were shipped to the West Indies where they died in slavery in horrible conditions. Children weren’t the only victims. Even eighty year old Irish women were deported to the West Indies and enslaved.”

White Slavery: Northern Capital and Southern Child Labor
New York American and Journal; rpt. Literary Digest 28 (Oct. 18, 1902)

“Early investigations of conditions in southern cotton mills made it appear to be a regional problem until it was discovered that many of them were owned by northern capitalists.”

White Servitude and the Growth of Black Slavery in Colonial America
by David W. Galenson
Published in Journal of Economic History
March 1981; pp. 39-47

White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina
by Warren B. Smith
University of South Carolina Press, 1961

Colonists in Bondage:
White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776
by Abbot Emerson Smith
Chapel Hill, NC.: University of North Carolina, 1947

White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia
by James Curtis Ballagh
John Hopkins University Press, 1895

Related pages

Slavery in America Today

Genocide of the American Indian Peoples

Genocide and Oppression of the American Indian Peoples

Enslavement and Oppression of the African-American Peoples

Related sites

Leaked CIA report says 50,000 sold into slavery in US every year

“A Central Intelligence Agency report leaked to the New York Times describes a flourishing trade in slave labor that brings some 50,000 women and children into the United States every year to serve as prostitutes, domestic servants or bonded workers. The report estimates that the number of slave laborers imported into the US from around the world has grown rapidly over the past decade, and predicts their ranks will continue to increase.”

Jews and the White Slave Trade
by Dr. William Pierce

“I don’t mean to imply that the Jews were the only ones at fault in the White slave trade. Gentile politicians and police officials gladly accepted bribes from the Jews and in return allowed them to carry on their dirty business. And in the United States non-Jewish criminal elements such as the [Italian/Sicilian] Mafia collaborated with the Jews or even ran their own White slave operations. But the trade in White slaves from eastern Europe has been an exclusively Jewish activity for the last 200 years.”

“...tens of thousands of pretty but naive young Russian and Ukrainian women are being swept up by the Jewish gangs — called ‘Russian’ gangs by the New York Times — and shipped off to a life of misery and degradation in Turkey, Pakistan, Thailand, and Israel, as well as to countries in Western Europe, where Jews also control organized crime. The young women, unable to find work in Russia or Ukraine or Poland and facing a bleak future in countries ravaged by decades of communism, are eager for any chance at a better life. They respond to advertisements that offer them work abroad as receptionists or secretaries and also promise free training and transportation. When the girls arrive at their destinations, however, they find something quite different — but by then it is too late. ...

“The White slave trade is big business in Israel. Ukrainian authorities estimate that as many as 40,000 Ukrainian women under the age of 30 are taken from Ukraine each year. Some of these women respond to advertisements promising employment abroad, like Irina did, and some are simply kidnapped and smuggled out of the country. Those who try to escape from their Jewish captors are treated brutally. Often they are butchered in front of other captive women to keep the others terrified into doing whatever they are told.”

Slavery in the modern era
Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy

by Kevin Bales
University of California Press, 1999; ISBN 0-520217-97-7

“There are ‘more slaves alive today than all the people stolen from Africa in the time of the transatlantic slave trade,’ writes Kevin Bales. He estimates there are more than 27 million people ‘enslaved by violence and held against their wills for purposes of exploitation’ and the number is increasing.” ...

“As many as 50,000 Thai women work as prostitutes in Japan. Many work as exotic dancers and bar girls in Europe and the US. One brothel owner in New York City testified she had paid $6,000-$15,000 for the 30 Thai women imprisoned in her brothel.”

The Forgotten Slaves:
Whites in Servitude in Early America and Industrial Britain


“Up to one-half of all the arrivals in the American colonies were White slaves and they were America’s first slaves. These Whites were slaves for life, long before Blacks ever were. This slavery was even hereditary. White children born to White slaves were enslaved too.”

“Whites were auctioned on the block with children sold and separated from their parents and wives sold and separated from their husbands.”

White Slavery, what the Scots already know

“There were hundreds of thousands of Scots sold into slavery during Colonial America. White slavery to the American Colonies occurred as early as 1630 in Scotland.”

White Slavery — What Really Happened

“...according to historian John Van Der Zee: ‘Between one half and two thirds of all Whites who came to the New World between 1609 and the early 19th century were slaves.’

“These White slaves came in the millions from the shores of the British Isles, in the form of deported convicts, political prisoners, and kidnapped children. ‘Transportation’ to the New World or Australia was a common punishment up until the late 1800s, and orphans have been sent to Australia as late as the 1950s.

“In 1618 the Council of London passed a bill legalizing the capture of vagrant children, aged eight or older. These homeless children were to be sent to Virginia, where they would be indentured as slaves for fourteen to sixteen years. After this, the slaves were to be released and given land. Promises like these were common. ‘Indentured servants’, or White slaves, as they should be called, rarely saw their benefits. The term of service was often extended, and many of the boys and girls who were captured died in slavery.”

Indentured Servitude in Colonial America
by Deanna Barker

“One half to two thirds of all immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. At times, as many as 75% of the population of some colonies were under terms of indenture. Even on the frontier, according to the 1790 U.S. Census, 6% of the Kentucky population was indentured.”

“In theory, the person is only selling his or her labor. In practice, however, indentured servants were basically slaves and the courts enforced the laws that made it so. The treatment of the servant was harsh and often brutal. In fact, the Virginia Colony prescribed ‘bodily punishment for not heeding the commands of the master.’ (Ballagh, 45) Half the servants died in the first two years. As a result of this type of treatment, runaways were frequent. The courts realized this was a problem and started to demand that everyone have identification and travel papers. (A.E. Smith 264-270).”

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